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tit JUL 

^"bl If v ^>\a^ 

^ < Established 1884. 

I 1 
Vol. XIX The West American Scientist No. 1 

. 

JULY, 1915 ♦ 

SI 

PLANT ADAPTABILITY 

A curious instance of how a plant may adapt itself to un- 
usual conditions was observed in an individual Button Cac- 
tus, recently found by the writer in Texas. 

Mammillaria micromeris is a small growing cactus usually 
found on bare ground or in rock crevices on the summit of 
limestone hills, where they are exposed to the sun. Com- 
monly (as found by the writer) the plant is simple, with 
a depressed top, slightly' elevated above the surrounding 
soil or rock-surface. In Mexico it more frequently occurs in 
cespitose masses, but in Texas, its northern limit of distri- 
bution, it more often resembles a small white button lying 
on the ground, whence its popular name. 

In ascending one of the steep hillsides leading to the flat- 
tened top of the limestone formation frequented by this 
cactus, I chanced to find a dead plant of the lecheguilla 
(Agave lecheguilla), and above its cluster of dried leaves was 
a head of the button cactus, facing the sun. Digging down 
I finally secured the remarkable specimen described as fol- 
lows : — greatest diameter, near the summit, 35 mm ; least 
diameter 8 mm, near the base ; hight of stem, 11 cm ; length 
of the elongated slender portion of the stem between the 
base and the normal top, 9 cm ; greatest diameter below the 
normal top, 25 mm; this prolongation, by which the plant 
raised itself from the shade of the lecheguilla was too weak 
to support the plant, and was covered with scanty clusters 
of weak slender spines. 

Evidently the plant exerted all its energy in forcing an 
upward growth to the light, and when it had reached the 
sunshine it was unusually well prepared to stand the strug- 
gle for existence, with roots strongly entrenched in the 
shade, and with a greater storage capacity because of its 
elongated trunk, was able to grow rapidly to a size greater 
than its neighbors under normal conditions. 

A smaller similar specimen was also found, which had 
developed a stem sufficiently strong for the support of its 
well-developed head. 

MOLLUSCAN WORLD 

BINNEYA NOTABILIS 

Shell light, thin, ear-shaped, horn-colored, 7 to 14 mm 

1 



long, too small to house the animal. It has been found on 
the Santa Barbara and Guadalupe Islands, and on the main- 
land of Baja California, under dead plants of Agave Shawii, 
but not on the main land in California. 

CHLAMYDOCONCHA ORCUTTI 

A single specimen of this curious clam, that lives outside 
of its rudimentary shell, is reported from Monterey bay, 
California. Only known previously from the type locality, 
False bay, San Diego, California, where it was found anch- 
ored bjr a byssus to the under side of stones. 
HELIX ASPERSA 

The spotted snail is a European species, long years ago 
detected at Charleston, S. C, and now not rare about many 
settlements. In some places it has become a source of an- 
noyance, eating garden flowers and vegetables altogether 
too freely. 

x 

SELANGINELLA LEPIDOPHYLLA 

On steep limestone hills, in portions of Texas and Mexico, 
occurs a curious plant clinging tenaciously by countless 
fibrous roots that at once hold the scanty soil and the fern- 
like plant in place. Literally thousands may be found where 
a misstep would land a careless hunter at the foot of a 
precipice hundreds of feet high. So thoroughly does this 
plant take possession that even a cactus finds it difficult or 
impossible to establish and maintain itself in a mat of resur- 
rection plants (Selaginella lepidophylla), which seem jealous 
of any encroachment upon their domain. 

For months these plants remain dry, even for years when 
no rain falls, the stems curled up into compact balls, but 
these quickly unfurl after a welcome shower and spread 
their bright green fronds over the rocks like a magic carpet. 

The plant may be kept for years in a house, dry and in 
compact form, and upon placing in a saucer of water will 
soon show a broad expanse of green, which fact has given 
rise to its popular name. Other species of selaginella are 
sometimes imported from Mexico and sold by curio dealers 
under the same common name, but these have no relation- 
ship with the " Resurrection Plant" of the Holy Land, some- 
times advertised. 



-x- 



A BOTANICAL STUDY OF MEXICO 

My botanical explorations in Mexico have included every 
state except Campeche, Tabasco, Yucatan and Chiapas, but 



my knowledge of the flora of the country is still very frag- 
mental. On December 20, 1909, I left my home in San Diego, 
California, for Mexico City, hoping to spend some six months 
in continuing my special studies of the Cactaceae, and a few 
other families of distinctively ornamental plants. I did not 
return until December 10, 1910, after nearly a year of con- 
tinuous field work. 

For over a month my investigations were confined to the 
musea and libraries of Mexico City, with very satisfactory 
results. I first visited Jalapa, in the state of Vera Cruz — a 
region where many botanists have collected in the past, 
credited with a greater variety of plants than any other 
portion of the world, but still ready to yield many new botan- 
ical treasures. My stay was at a most unfavorable season, 
and short, and at its termination I went to Vera Cruz — 
where many flowers were just coming into bloom. 

I established my headquarters at Vera Cruz for three 
months, making excursions from thence along the Vera Cruz 
al Isthmo railway to Cordoba, and south to its junction with 
the Tehuantepec National Ry., at Santa Lucretia. Though 
the oldest and most important seaport of the republic, the 
environs of Vera Cruz yielded one new shrub, much to my 
surprise, as a result of very desultary collecting. Much 
time was spent in this period near Sanborn, a few miles north 
of Santa Lucretia, near the boundary line between the states 
of Vera Cruz and Oaxaca. 

I then removed to the quaint Indian city of Tehuantepec, 
traversing the entire line of the Tehuantepec National Ry., 
from Coatzacoalcos (Puerto Mexico) to Salina Cruz. One 
trip from the latter port was made by steamer to Puerto 
Angel, Oaxaca, but the season was so little advanced that I 
found very few flowers. 

The Isthmus of Tehuantepec, comprised in the states of 
Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, thus occupied my attention until 
the last of July, when I returned to Mexico City, at a time 
when the whole table lands of Mexico were a mass of bloom. 
Compelled to remain in Mexico City for a time, I started to 
explore the wonderful valley of Mexico — a region that re- 
calls a host of eminent names of the past, and only lately so 
well covered by the labors of Cyrus G. Pringle — yet, in his 
footsteps I gleaned a few species that apparently had hither- 
to escaped attention. 

Ajusco, and the region beyond to fair Cuernavaca, with 
one day at the Rio Balsas, in the state of Guerrero, proved 
far too rich for harvesting in a single season — the pleasure 
of seeing a multitude of beautiful flowers hitherto unknown 
to me being marred by the physical impossibility of grasping 



half the forms that my eye feasted upon from the windows 
of the railway train. 

The same tantalizing experience awaited me in my travels 
by rail in other directions from Mexico City. A day at 
Teziutlan, a beautiful, quiet Indian town, yielded over thirty 
varieties of ferns. Pachuca — of mining fame — gave me a 
glimpse of the flora of another state — Hidalgo. Around the 
orange groves of the Rio Verde, in the state of San Luis 
Potosi, was found a rich field apparently untouched. Jour- 
neys eastward to Tampico, of oil fame, and westward to 
lovely Guadalajara, enabled me to glimpse other thousands 
of species that I could not harvest — though with less regret, 
knowing that my friend, Mr. Pringle, in his labors covering 
twenty-seven years of time, had made the most of these known 
to the botanical world. 

The approach to the city of Colima, and to the port of 
Manzanillo, was far more satisfactory, except that the time 
available was too short to do this extremely rich and nearly 
virgen field full justice, still I left with presses full to over- 
flowing. 

I returned to the United States on nearly the last passen- 
ger train that was destined to run under the the administra- 
tion of Porfirio Diaz, from Mexico City to El Paso, hoping 
to return to the fascinating field after a month's vacation. 
But two years were to elapse instead, not until December, 
1912, did I again enter the republic, and then through Piedra 
Negras instead of Juarez. 

Resuming my work in Mexico City, under the short and 
unfortunate regime of Francisco I. Madero, I planned to 
cover as much of the still little-known flora of the west coast 
of Mexico as I could accomplish. But again fate willed other- 
wise, and the early part of the season was spent collecting 
north of the Rio Grande, in Texas. 

In July, 1913, another attempt was made to enter the field, 
leaving San Diego, California, by steamer, for Manzanillo, 
and thence by train to Mexico City. Finding it still im- 
practical to prosecute the field work undertaken I again re- 
turned home in September, 1913, with comparatively small 
additional collections. 

A partial list of species, nearly complete as far as they 
have yet been determined by Dr. Jesse Moore Greenman, ap- 
pears in the third volume of American Plants (the Euphor- 
biaceae, determined by Dr. Charles F. Millspaugh, appears 
in the same list). The lichens, determined by Dr. H. E. 
Hasse; fungi by Dr. Murrill; grasses by Dr. A. S. Hitch- 
cock; and ferns, by William R. Maxon, appear in the same 
work, but probably more than one thousand species yet await 



determination. Dr. Jules Cardot has detected several new 
species of mosses ,among the few submitted to him for ex- 
amination. 

The following indicates the principal stations where col- 
lections were made in 1910, with dates and numbers under 
which specimens were distributed. 

Jalapa, VC, 10 F 1910. Nos. 2801-2862, 3045-6. (All num- 
bers inclusive.) 
Vera Cruz, VC, 16 F 1910. Nos. 2863-2910, 3157-60, 3163-5, 

3167-8, 3179-83, 3250-2, 3394-3410, 3425-8. 
Belleville, Oax (near Sanborn, VC), 23 F 1910. Nos. 2911- 

49, 2957, 3047-9, 3064, 3332-6, 3386, 3388-9, 3434, 3437-8. 
Sanborn, VC, 28 F 1910. Nos. 2950-6, 2958-76, 3173-8, 3235- 

49, 3256, 3381, 3390-2, 3429, 3435. 
Sanborn, VC, 18 Ap 1910. Nos. 2977-3044, 3050-63, 3065- 

82, 3412-24, 3440-3, 3445, 3448-50. 
Carmen, VC, 21 Mr 1910. Nos. 3083-6. (On Tehuantepec Na- 
tional Ry.) 
Coatzacoalcos, VC, 21 Mr 1910. Nos. 3087-3109, 3161-2, 

3166, 3255, 3257-8, 3295-6, 3393, 3457-66. 
Tezonapa, VC, 5 Ap 1910. Nos. 3110-31, 3211, 3380, 3387, 

3444. 
Cordoba, VC, 6 Ap 1910. Nos. 3132-56, 3207-10, 3212-17, 

3253-4, 3337-79, 3382, 3385, 3432-3, 3446-7. 
Harvey's ranch, near Sanborn, VC, 31 Mr 1910. Nos. 3169- 

72 (natives of Guatemala, in cultivation). 
Chivela, Oax, 16 Ap 1910. Nos. 3184-93, 3206, 3218, 3275-6, 

3299-3302. 
Chinameca, VC, 30 Ap 1910. Nos. 3144-3205, 3277-87. 
Rincon Antonio, Oax, 21 Ap 1910. Nos. 3219-34, 3259-74, 

3383-4, 3436, 3467-72. 
Salina Cruz, Oax, 28 Ap 1910. Nos. 3288-94, 3297-8, 3431, 

3451-4, 3473-6. 
Tehuantepec, Oax, 19 Ap 1910. Nos. 3303-30, 3455-6. 
Rinconada, VC, 13 Ap 1910. No. 3411. 
Vista Hermosa, VC, 25 Mr 1910. No. 3430. 
San Marcos, VC, 25 Mr 1910. No. 3439. 
Contreras, DF, 9 Ag 1910. Nos. 3477-3547. 
San Angel, DF, 12 Ag 1910. Nos. 3548-71, 3687-99. 
Olivar, DF, 15 Ag 1910. Nos. 3572-3611, 3647-86. 
Tlalpam, DF, 16 Ag 1910. Nos. 3612-46. 
Ajusco, Mex., 19 Ag 1910. Nos. 3700-36, 4442. 
Tres Marias, Mex., 23 Ag 1910. Nos. 3737-66. 
Cima. Mex., 24 Ag 1910. Nos. 3767-3800, 4234-5. 
Parres, Mex., 30 Ag 1910. Nos. 3801-19, 4439-41. 
El Parque, Mex., 31 Ag 1910. Nos. 3820-62, 4080-99, 4375- 

82, 4390-4406, 4418-20. 



6 

Alarcon, Mor, 31 Ag 1910. Nos. 3863-71. 

Cuernavaca, Mor, 31 Ag 1910. Nos. 3872-94. 

Pachuca, Hgo, 5 S 1910. Nos. 3895-3933. 

Puebla, Pue, 6 S 1910. No. 3934. 

Amozoc, Pue, 6 S 1910. No. 3935. 

Acajete, Pue, 6 S 1910. Nos. 3936-44. 

La Venta, Pue, 6 S 1910. No. 3945. 

San Marcos, Pue, 6 S 1910. No. 3946. 

Oriental, Pue, 6 S 1910. Nos. 3947-9, 4066. 

Huitzuilzilapam, Pue, 6 S 1910. No. 3950. 

Tezuitlan, Pue, 6 S 1910. Nos. 3951-4065. 

Mexico, DF, 16 S 1910. Nos. 4067-79, 4100-14. 

Telles, Hgo, 21 S 1910. Nos. 4115-59, 4220-3. 

Rio Balsas, Gro, 26 Ag 1910. Nos. 4160-4219, 4224-33, 

4384-9. 
Xochimulco, DP, 3 O 1910. Nos. 4236-66, 4329-64. 
Churubusco, DF, 4 O 1910. Nos. 4267-4328, 4443. 
Tecoman, Jal, 20 O 1910. Nos. 4444-55. 
Manzanillo, Col, 20 O 1910. Nos. 4456-4505. 
Colima, Col, 24 O 1910. Nos. 4506-4622. 
Alzada, Col, 4 N 1910. Nos. 4623-89. 
Tuxpan, Col, 4 N 1910. Nos. 4690-4711. 
Cardenas, SLP,-N 1910. Nos. 4712-17. 
Near Rio Balsas, Gro, Ag 1910. Nos. 4365-74, 4383, 4407-17, 

4421-38. 

The above does not include the small collection made at 
Puerto Angel, Oax, and only a part of those collected in 
Tehuantepec, and at some other localities. The lists of Texas 
and west coast and other Mexican plants collected in 1913, 
have yet to be prepared. 

The orchids, submitted to Oakes Ames, of Harvard Uni- 
versity, have not yet been reported upon to me ; a few living 
orchids sent to the Missouri Botanical Garden, have been re- 
ported upon, but as no herbarium material was secured, are 
not included in the above. The living cacti collected never 
reached my home garden in California, so that I am able to 
add little to the previous knowledge of that family. 

Of five hundred species of ferns credited to Mexico, I find 
about two hundred among my 1910 collections. The total of 
herbarium numbers for the year exceeds three thousand — 
but only a part of these have been, or will be, distributed. 
The difficulties attending the determination of the species 
will long defer a full account of the year's work. 

C. R. ORCUTT, 



JOHN JAMES RIVERS 

J. J. Rivers, long librarian at the University of California, 
was born in England January 6, 1824, and died at his home 
in Santa Monica, California, December 16, 1913. He was; 
chiefly known for his work in Entomology, but also made 
large collections of mollusks and fossils. An interesting 
sketch by Ira M. Buell is given in Science, n. s. 39 : 319. 

— x 

EDWARD SINGLETON HOLDEN 

Astronomer, and librarian at the U. S. Naval Academy, 
formerly director of the Lick Observatory, died March 15, 
1914, aged 68 years. 

-x 

FERNS 

ADIANTUM JORDANI 

The Maidenhair fern of Southern California, commonly 
erect, a few inches high. 

Plants collected to order at $10.00 per 100. 
CHEILANTHES CALIFORNICA 

Lace Fern. A very dainty plant, with finely cut fronds, 
about 6 inches high. 

Plants 50 cents each, $3 per dozen, $12 per 100. 
CHEILANTHES CLEVELANDI 

Cleveland's Lip Fern. Fronds finely divided, smooth and 
green above, beneath covered with ciliate scales, at first 
white, at maturity changing to a rich chestnut brown. 
GYMNOGRAMME TRIANGULARIS 

California Gold Fern. Fronds dark green, the under side 
of a rich golden yellow. 

Plants 15 cents each, $1.25 per dozen, $6 per 100. 
Variety VISCOSA: Silver Fern. 

Under side of fronds of a silvery white, not otherwise 
distinguishable from the Gold Fern. 

Plants 15 cents each, $1.25 per dozen, $6 per 100. 
NOTHOLAENA NEWBERRYI 

Cotton Fern. About 6 inches high, fronds covered with 
a web of very fine entangled whitish hairs. 

Plants 50 cents each, $3 per dozen, $15 per 100. 
PELLAEA ANDROMEDAEFOLIA 

Coffee Fern. Fronds 4 inches to 2 feet long, ovate, often 
occurring of a blood red or rich brown color in Southern 
California. 

Plants 15 cents each, $1.25 per dozen, $7.50 per 100. 
PELLAEA ORNITHOPUS 

Tea Fern. "Wire Fern. Fronds 4 to 12 inches long, rigid, 
finely divided. 

Plants 25 cents each, $3 per dozen, $10 per 100. 



8 

WOODWARDIA RADICANS 

Chain Fern. Fronds often 4 to 6 or even 10 feet high, one 
of the most luxuriant growers, of wide distribution. 

x 

FRUITS AND FLOWEES 

AGAVE SHAWII 

Named in honor of Henry Shaw, the founder of the Mis- 
souri Botanical Garden. Foliage dark green, broad, strong- 
ly armed with a terminal and marginal spines. 

Small plants $5 each;over one foot high, $10 each; 10 feet 
in diameter, $1000 each. 
ANEMOPSIS CALIFORNICA 

Yerba Manse. The broad light green leaves and the pure 
white petals of the flower often blotched with crimson. The 
roots are in great repute as a cure for wounds. 

Plants 50 cents each, $3 per dozen, $20 per 100. 
DODECATHEON CLEVELANDI 

California Cyclamen, or Shooting Stars. The flowers white, 
flushed with rose purple. 

Roots 15 cents each, $1 per dozen, $5 per 100. 
DUDLEYA PULVERULENTA 

The large, broad leaves are covered with a white powder, 
giving it a beautiful appearance. 

Plants 50 cents to $2 each ; $5 per dozen, $25 per 100. 
HESPEROCALLIS UNDULATA 

Desert Lily. This native of the Colorado Desert has large 
edible bulbs, which produce large handsome white flowers. 

Collected to order only, at $20 per 100. 
PHOENIX CANARIENSIS 

Canary Island Palm. One of the most graceful and popu- 
lar of the hardy palms grown in Southern California. 

Seeds 25 cents per dozen, $1 per 100. 
PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA 

Date Palm. This native of the African deserts is now suc- 
cessfully grown in Arizona, Southern California and parts 
of Mexico. Readily grown from seed. 

Seeds 25 cents per dozen, $1 per 100. 
RESURRECTION PLANT 

See Selaginella lepidophylla. 

While our supply lasts we will mail to subscribers at 25 
cents each 
RICHARDIA AFRICANA: Calla. 

Roots 25 cents each, $10 per 100. 
SOHINUS MOLLE : Peruvian Pepper Tree. 

Seeds 10 cents per packet, $1 per lb, 



STYLOPHYLLUM EDULE 

A curious plant, with long, cylindrical, pointed leaves, 
used as a salad by the California Indians. 

Plants 50 cents each, $4 per dozen, $20 per 100. 
STYLOPHYLLUM ORCUTTI 

Similar to S: edule, but smaller. Plants 25 cents each, 
$10 per 100. 
YUCCA MOJAVENSIS 

Plants $1.00 each. 
ZEPHYRANTHES CANDIDA 

Zephyr Flower. A small bulbous plant, with lovely white 
flowers about 2 inches across. 

Bulbs 50 cents per dozen, $2 per 100. 

x 

CACTOGRAPHY 

MAMMILLARIA BOCASANA 

Named for the Sierra de Bocas, Mexico, where this small 
cactus grows among the rocks, less than 2 inches high, flat- 
tened-globose, often in clustered heads covered with inter- 
lacing white radial spines, one of the 4 central spines is 
hooked. 

Plants Fifty cents each, when in stock. 
MAMMILLARIA DIOICA 

Mrs. Katharine Brandegee gave this name to the common 
fish-hook cactus, once so abundant around San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, and south in Baja California — formerly considered 
to be Scheer's M: Goodridgii (Goodrichii), originally de- 
scribed from Corros (Cedrus) Island. 

Plants 25 cents each; clusters $1.00. 
MYRTILLOCACTUS GEOMETRIZANS 

Garambulla. A small tree, much branched, with 5 or 6 
ribs with clusters of stout ashy spines, yielding a small fruit, 
much relished by the Mexicans either in its fresh or dried 
state. Plants $1.00 each. 

PENIOCEREUS GREGGII 

Jara Matraca; remarkable for the enormous fleshy root, 
from which the slender 4- or 5-ribbed stem rises and pro- 
duces large white nocturnal flowers. The ovoid long-acumi- 
nate scarlet fruit, bearing elevated spineless areoles, is 
edible. 

The tuberous roots $2.00, $3.00, or $5.00 each. 
SELENICEREUS GRANDIFLORUS 

Queen of the Night, a climbing species, with slender stems 
and short spines, bearing large fragrant white flowers, open 
at night only. The stems are used in medicine. 

Plants 25 cents to $1.00 each. 



10 

THORNBER'S MAMMILLARIA 
See Mammillaria Thornberi. 

Plants of this tiny species may be had by subscribers at 
50 cents each. 
WILCOXIA POSELGERI 

Root tuberous, resembling that of a Dahlia; stems 1 to 4 
feet high, slender, branched, covered with a delicate lace- 
work of interlacing white spines; flowers over 2 inches in 
diameter, rose purple. 

Plants 50 cents and $1.00 each. 

x 

PIN HOLDERS 

An ingenious aluminum contrivance, for holding pins. 
Packed in box, postpaid, $1.50 each ; $75 per 100. 

x 

WEST AMERICAN SCIENTIST 
Charles Russell Orcutt, 
New Number 1705 Broadway, 

San Diego, California. 
Rate: 25 cents per line, each insertion, in this type. 
Subscription price: $1.00 a year in advance; single number 
10 cents. 

Back numbers 25 cents each as far as in stock. 
x— 



ORCUTT'S MILLION DOLLAR LIST 

Here is a partial list of Real Estate for sale or trade — out of 
several million dollars' worth on our books. 

We cannot always supply just what a client wants — perhaps 
the reader wishes to sell something that would just suit some- 
one else. We invite your co-operation in bringing buyer and 
seller together. Exchanges, rentals, loans, insurance, conveyanc- 
ing, paying taxes and managing properties are included in the 
duties of a Real Estate Dealer. "Your business is ours." 

Pacific Telephones: Main 480 5W, and National 213R. 

C. R. ORCUTT, 1705 Broadway, San Diego, California. 

Apartment Houses 

San Diego, 24 apartments, will take part in trade. $65,000. 

San Diego, on Broadway. $60,000. 
Hotels 

San Diego, close in, good terms. $36,000. 

Sanatorium in New Mexico, for trade. $6,000. 
Business Lots: San Diego, California. 

Broadway corners, $30,000; $40,000; $60,000; $100,000; 
$150,000. 

Fifth street, 25 feet, $25,000; 25 feet improved, $85,000. 

Market street, corner, $20,000; $40,000. 

M street, improved corner, $8,000. 

F street, improved, 50x140, $6,000; corner 100x100, $12,000. 

Eighth street, 50x100, $40,000. 
Business lots: Encanto, California. 

Improved income, $2,000. 
Alberta, Canada 

Lot in Macleod, $650. One in Edson, $300. 



11 

Ghula Vista, California 

Five-room house and %-acre lot, $2800. 
Escondido, California 

24 acres, improved, part in vineyard, $11,500. 
Residence lots: San Diego 

Arlington, many choice lots, each $250 upward. 
Belmont, East San Diego, each $200 to $800. 
Clifton, East San Diego, $250 to $500 each. 
Eastgate, East San Diego, $25 to $100 each. 
Fairmount, East San Diego, each $250 upward. 
City Heights, each, $25 (canyon lots), upward. 
Timber lands 

Vancouver Island, B. C, 32 sections, 512 million ft., $150,000. 
Mexican timber and grazing lands, in large tracts. 
Ranches : California 

National City, 5 ac, fine residence, orange trees, etc. $16,000. 
Chollas Valley, 1.85 acres, part in lemons, $1500. 
Chollas Valley, 5 acres, part in bearing oranges, $7500. 
Chollas Valley, 8 acres, fine orange orchard, $11,500. 
Riverside, 10 acres in alfalfa, $6500. 
Modoc County, 600 acres, improved, $45,000. 
Otay, 5 acres, improved, $3000. 
Jamacha, 700 acres, $52,500. Terms. 
La Mesa, lemon orchard, bearing, 5 acres, $8500. 
Ramona, 5 acres, improved, $2200. Will exchange. 
Ramona, 408 acres, a snap at $7000 cash. 
Tia Juana, 40 acres, $8000. Will exchange. 
Tia Juana, 46 acres, $60 per acre, not alfalfa land. 
Ranches : Mexico 

San Jose del Cabo, Baja California, 25,000 acres, $50,000 gold. 
Baja California on U. S. boundary, 20,000 acres, $100,000. 
Baja California, 7,500 acres, fine stock ranch near XL S. 
\ boundary, $3 0,000. Terms. Part trade. 
"Old Mexico, tropical fruit, timber and grazing lands in large 

tracts. 
Exchanges: for California 

South Dakota, 160 acres, $4800. 
• Minnesota, 2-story brick, $8500. 
Idaho, lot in Post Falls. $150. 

Sierra Madre, Los Angeles Co., 8-room house, $6000, to ex- 
change for San Diego. 
Washington, 2 houses in Everett, each $2000. 
Gold Mines 

A group near the Colorado river, with ore blocked out to 

value exceeding $100,000, can be bought at a low figure. 
A group in British Columbia, with $20,000 in development 

work and high grade ore ($50 to $100 per ton), $150,000. 

Small cash payment. 

We have clients wanting good mines of various kinds, and 
have many undeveloped properties listed. 
San Diego, California 

(See also "Business lots" and "Residence lots.") 

University Heights, 3-room house, $800. 

East San Diego, 4-room house, $1750. 

University Heights, 2 lots on terms, $600. 

Ocean Beach, 4-room house, $1200. 

Pacific Beach, lots $300 each. 

Middletown, 100x100, $7000. 

Mission Hills, 6-room house, modern, $4500. 

Many other business and residence lots, residences and 
other bargains for sale or exchange. 



12 
BELLE AIR PARK 

Lot 39, block 5, Belle Air Park, San Mateo Co., CaL, 
(" South San Francisco"). 25x100 feet, sidewalk, sewers, 
water, graded street, street trees, etc. Price $800. 

Will exchange for San Diego. 
BROADWAY 

Lot 12, block 2, Culverwell's Addition to San Diego, CaL, 
50x100 at S. E. corner of 17th st. and Broadway. 

Tenants wanted for stores to be erected. 
EAST KLAMATH PALLS, OREGON 

Block 6, First Addition, six full lots. This block adjoins 
a public park. Price $600. 

Will exchange for San Diego. 
GOLDEN HILL 

N. E. cor. of 23d and E sts., San Diego, CaL, (75 feet on E, 
65 ft. on 23d), with 12-room house (corner vacant). One of 
the choicest view corners on Golden Hill. Price $15,000. 

Will give long lease of whole property, or improve for 
satisfactory tenant. 
GUTHRIE, OKLAHOMA 

Lot or block 9, Ball and Ferguson's subdivision of N. % of 
N. W. %, of section 20, T. 16 N., R. 2 W. of the Indian Me- 
ridian, containing two acres. Price $1000. 

Will exchange for San Diego. 
JAMUL, CALIFORNIA 

The N. E. % of N .W. %, section 2, T. 17 S, R. 2 E., S. B. 
M., San Diego county. ''Running water, perennial springs 
and oak trees." Price $2000. 

Will exchange for San Diego. 
MANCHESTER, MONTANA 

Lot 10, block 28, 50x125 feet, near the co-operative woolen 
mill. Price $1000. 

Will exchange for San Diego. 
PORT ANGELES, WASHINGTON 

Lots 1 to 24, block 11, Union Pacific second addition. 
Price $150 each. 

Will exchange for San Diego. 
NATIONAL CITY, CALIFORNIA 

Lots 6, 7 & 8, block 3, 75x100 feet, on First Ave., fenced, 
water piped on, etc. Price $1500. 

Lot 13, block 273, 25x100 feet, corner 17th st. and 8th ave., 
improved with 2-story brick building 25x60 ft. that cost 
$10,000. Will give long lease, sell or exchange. 
NEW RIVERSIDE 

Lot 5, containing about 10 acres, adjoining the City of San 
Diego. Price $2000. 

Lot 6, containing about 10 acres, adjoining the City of San 
Diego. Price $2000. 



13 
REAL ESTATE AND INVESTMENTS 

SPEARFISH, SOUTH DAKOTA 

Lot 23, block 3, Golden Belt Addition, 25x100 feet near the 
business center of this beautiful and prosperous town. Price 
$500. 

Will exchange for San Diego. 
VINEYARDS 

Forty acres near Sultana, California, 29 in full bearing 
Muscats, 5 in Malagas, with some black figs, and alfalfa. 
Soil rich, dark, sandy loam, with an abundance of water. 
Price $13,000. Terms. Let us show you. 

Forty acres near Dinuba, California, with dwelling, barn, 
pumping plant, and "lots of water;" 14 acres in Muscat and 
10 in Thompson's Seedless; 12 in bearing peaches, 4 in al- 
falfa. Price $12,000, one-third down. Let us show you. 

Eighty acres in raisins and table grapes, alfalfa, etc., near 
Sultana, California, with an abundant water supply. The 
soil and climate are especially adapted to the growing of 
Malagas and the Emperor grape, but less than half is yet 
planted, and the vines not yet in full bearing. Price $13,200. 
Terms. Let us show you. 

Unimproved lands near Orosi, California, suitable for 
vines, oranges, or other fruits, can be offered in tracts of 
20, 40, 60, or 80 acres, at $100 per acre, on reasonable terms. 

El Cajon valley, near San Diego, California, is noted for 
its profitable raisin vineyards. Let us furnish particulars 
regarding some bargains. 

At Jamul, California, we have 40 acres suitable for a vine- 
yard or olive orchard. See notice elsewhere. 

OLIVE ORCHARDS 

Twenty acres near Orosi, California, eight acres just 
planted in Manzanillo and Mission olives. Soil is a rich 
sand} 7 loam. An abundance of water. Price $6000. Terms 
on application. Let us show you. 

ORANGE ORCHARDS 

Smith Mountain Tract, 100 acres, 60 in Valencia oranges, 
30 in vineyard (Malaga, Muscat and Thompson's Seedless). 
Near Dinuba, Cal. Price $60,000 — terms. Let us show you. 

CITRUS NURSERY 

The Unger nursery, one of the show places of Tulare and 
Fresno counties, can be purchased with or without the pres- 
ent stock of citrus trees, olives, etc. Price $300 per acre, all 
planted in citrus trees. Terms. Let us show you. 



14 

TO CONCHOLOGISTS: 

I have prepared a manuscript list, designed in part as an 
enumeration of the Mollusca of a region called West America — 
extending from the Arctic regions to the southern extremity of 
Baja (Lower) California. Montana, Colorado, and New Mexico 
may be taken as the eastern limits of this region. The work will 
also include other American species collected by the writer, espe- 
cially those of Vermont, Texas, and Mexico. 

It is in part a review of some of the literature on the mollusca 
of the region designated, as. far as the author's library permits. 
Some of the synonymy is noted, and many of the changes in 
nomenclature, but the larger part of these are left for the reader 
to learn as he may. Many notes have been culled from the liter- 
ature available, as well as descriptions of some of the new species 
of recent years. 

C. R. Orcutt, No. 1705 Broadway, San Diego, California. 



Armstrong, Margaret: in collaboration with J. J. Thornber: Field 
book of western wild flowers. 596 p. 500 ill. and 48 colored 
plates. 1915. $2 (leather $2.50). Postage 15 cents. 
This work describes in popular language the commoner wild 
flowers of Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah 
and Arizona. Prof. Thornber is responsible for the nomenclature 
in this work, which is conservative rather than "modern," or vice 
versa, as Cereus giganteus is still Cereus instead of Carnegiea, 
while Mammillaria becomes "Cactus," a name which should be 
found only in synonymy. But these perplexing questions will not 
trouble the average reader for whom this work is intended, and 
the book will be welcomed we believe by a host of tourists, and 
others. The artist-author worked under the disadvantage of a 
small sized page, the work being designed for the pocket — a mis- 
take we believe on the part of the publishers, in that the illus- 
rations are not given full justice. Yet the coloring is exquisite in 
the plates, and the other figures will be found very useful, and 
we welcome it among the nature books of the year. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, publishers, New York. 

Noble, H. G. S.: The New York stock exchange in the crisis of 

1914. 89 p. 1915. 

Treats of the closing of the exchange, the period of suspen- 
sion and the reopening during one of the most critical periods in 
the country's history. The essay is by the president of the ex- 
change and authoritative, and will be of great interest to students 
of financial questions. The service rendered by the exchange to 
the country was far beyond calculation. 

Clark, Austin Hobart: 

A monograph of the existing crinoids. Vol 1, part 1, Washing- 
ton, 1915. U. S. nat. mus. bulletin 82. 



REAL ESTATE OWNERS 

We will advertise in this magazine any improved or vacant 
lots or lands, when given exclusive agency for a period of 
not less than 6 months, if price and terms are satisfactory. 
No charge except regular commission in case of sale — 
which will be divided with any agent who assists in effecting 
a sale. 



15 
ADVERTISEMENTS 

PAINTINGS 

1 A MEXICAN GENTLEMAN. A fine old portrait of a typ- 
ical man of affairs of Mexican colonial days, according to its 
former owner (1910) over 100 years old. Canvas 26^33 inches, 
unsigned. Price $250. 

2 A MONK'S PORTRAIT. Miniature style on wood panel 
(split, but capable of being restored in fine condition), 5%xl*4 
inches, with monogram of Thomas De Keyser in corner. This old 
master was born in Amsterdam about 1595, died 1667. The 
painting has been owned by a Spaniard in Mexico City for over 
50 years, and bought by the present owner in 1913. Price $1000. 

3 DOVE DESCENDING. Canvas 33x45 inches, unsigned, 
portraying four figures in sacred history, in the rich coloring that 
is characteristic of the famous Indian artist, Manuel Cabrera, 
whose work it is believed to be, according to a well-known critic 
in Mexico City. Price $1000. 

4. RAMON CASTENYEDA. A sketch by this noted Mexican 
artist, a member of the San Carlos Academy of Mexico City, who 
died about 1908, was acquired from an intimate friend of his. 
Price $50. 

5 CRUCIFIXION. An unsigned canvas 28x39 inches, de- 
picting the Savior as surrounded on the cross by four sorrowing 
companions; is fairly typical of Mexican art in colonial days. 
Price $250. 

6 CHRIST ON THE CROSS. An unsigned canvas 26x34% 
inches, depicting the Savior alone on the cross, "over 100 years 
old," purchased in Mexico City in 1910. Price $100. 

7 SKETCH, by Ramon Casteneda, designed for the munic- 
ipal palace, in Juarez, and later executed on a larger scale. $50. 

8 EL RIO PANUCO. Sketch by Ramon Casteneda, dated 
May,. 1894, and signed. View of Tampico. Price $75. 

9 Sketch of a pack mule, by Ramon Casteneda. Price $50. 

10 MADONNA AND CHILD. An old painting on tin, 9x12 
inches, purchased in Mexico City. Price $10. 

11 CHRIST BEARING HIS CROSS. 8x10, on metal, Price 
$10. 

12 CHRIST AND CHILD. On metal, 7x10. $5. 

13 HEART OP JESUS. Canvas liy 2 xl5y 2 inches, old but 
in fair shape. $50. 

14 SAVIOR AND CHILD. On metal, 10x13 inches. $20. 

15 DRAGON AND SAINT. On metal, 9x12 inches, old. $15. 

16 Eucalyptus globulus, water color sketch, 18x26 inches, 
framed, showing foliage and flowers. Price $40. 

17 Cereus grandiflorus, showing flower and fruit. Water 
color sketch 24x30 inches, showing the plant climbing a Royal 
Palm, with Plumieria alba, Phyllocactus strictus, and other Cuban 
plants. $75. 

C. R. Orcutt, No. 1705 Broadway, San Diego, California. 

o 

CACTI AND RARE PLANTS 

C. R. Orcutt, 1705 Broadway, San Diego, California. 

o 

BOOKS — OLD AND NEW 

C. R. Orcutt, No. 1705 Broadway, San Diego, California. 



16 

ADVERTISEMENTS 

BOOKS — OLD AND NEW 

Orders for any books, pamphlets, or periodicals are invited. 
When requested we will forward partial lists of literature on 
hand, or pertaining to any subject. Natural history works a spe- 
cialty. 

MOLLUSCA 

Arnold, Augusta Foote: The sea-beach at ebb-tide. 490 p. 600 
ill. An interesting account of shells, sea-weeds, and marine 
life. $3. 

Keep, Josiah: West Coast Shells. 230 p. ill. 1893. Out of print. 
$3.00. 

Keep, Josiah: West Coast Shells. 1911. 346 p. ill. $2.00. Post- 
age 12 cents. 

Orcutt, C. R.: West American Mollusca. 13 numbers of 4 p. each, 
all pub. $1.00. 

Orcutt, C. R. : Notes on the mollusks of the vicinity of San Diego, 
Cal., and Todos Santos bay, Lower California. With com- 
ments by W. H. Dall. 19 p. 25 cents. 

HISTORY 

Smythe, William E.: History of San Diego, 1542-1907. 736 p. 
ill. $6.00. 

MEXICO 

Williams, J. J.: Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 295 p. (except p. 159- 
162, and atlas). A rare work, with many interesting notes on 
the natural history. $4. 

NATURAL HISTORY 

Hall, James: Geology and Paleontology of the (U. S. and Mex- 
ican) boundary. From Emory's report. With descriptions of 
Cretaceous and Tertiary fossils, by T. A. Conrad. 21 plates. $3. 

Emory, William H.: Report on the U. S. and Mexican boundary 
survey. Vol. I, except report by James Hall. An interesting 
narrative, with many portraits of Indians, and other illus- 
trations. $5.00. 

BOTANY 

Orcutt, C. R.: American plants. Per vol., $4. 3 vols, now ready. 

Orcutt, C. R.: Review of the Cactaceae. All pub. $5. 

The following old paintings are offered for sale by the editor at 

prices named. They may be seen by special appointment. 

Labouret, J.: Monographie de la famille des Cactees. Very rare. 
$10.00. 

Torrey, John: Botany of the Pacific railroad exploration. 1856. 
With description of the Cactaceae, by George Engelmann, and 
other papers. 59 plates. $5. 

C. R. Orcutt, No. 1705 Broadway, San Diego, California. 

o 

WANTED 

Nautilus: all, or any volume, in exchange for shells. Also other 
works on shells. Will exchange shells. 

Shell collection: Will exchange real estate for a shell collection 
of equal value. Have lots in Montana, South Dakota, Ala- 
bama, Florida, Oregon, Washington, and other states. 

C. R. Orcutt, 1705 Broadway, San Diego, California.